Location: Lying in the center of the Asian continent. Completely landlocked between two large neighbours – Russian Federation and People’s Republic of China.
Boundaries: Total length of boundaries: 8158 km, 4673 km with China and 3485 km with the Russian Federation.
Area: 1.566.5 sq.km. Mongolia is the 6th largest country in Asia and the 18th largest in the world. Mongolia is the country with no marine coastline. The nearest point to the sea is about 1.000 kilometers.
Altitude: One of the highest countries in the world.
Average altitude: 1.580 m above sea level.
Ulaanbaatar: 1.350 m above sea level.
Highest point: 4.374 m above sea level /mount Huiten of Altai Tavan Bogd Mountain/.
Lowest point: 560 m above sea level /Huh nuur/
Climate: Mongolian climate is rather arid. The mean annual precipitation is 200-300 mm and in the northern part of the country is 300 to 400 millimeters /May to September/. The coldest month is January. In some regions, in the northern and north-western part of Mongolia, the temperature drops to between 45 o C to 50o C below zero.
Mongolia is a very sunny country, mostly with considerable sunshine 250 days a year. The hottest month is July. On the greater part of Mongolian territory the air temperature rises to 25o C. In the Gobi desert it reaches 30-35o C.
Mongolia is the land of winds. Sometimes, winds velocity reaches 15-25 meters per second, especially in spring.
Mineral Output and Reserves: gold, copper, molybdenum, iron, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, tungsten, fluorspar and silver.
Wildlife of Mongolia:
Plants of Mongolia:
Mongolia has approximately 4000 species of plants. About 3000 species of them are flowering plants, 875 fungus and 300 species of microorganisms.
Forests make up 9.6 % (15 million hectares) of Mongolian territory, with 72 % of the forests being dominated by Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica). Others are species of birch trees (Betula Pendula and Betula Humilis) and species of willow trees (Salix). They are common in the valleys of the largest rivers. In the arid Gobi region, occur groves of the unusual small Saxaul tree Haloxylon ammondendron.
Animals of Mongolia:
Mongolia has a rich fauna: 136 species of mammals, 436 species of birds, about 22 species of reptiles, 8 species of amphibians, 75 species of fish, and over 15.000 species of insects.
Facts about Mongolia
Capital of Mongolia: Ulaanbaatar /Red Hero/ city
Official Language: Khalkha Mongolian
Monetary system: Tugrik /MNT/. At present, 20.000, 10.000, 5.000, 1.000, 500, 100, 50, 20, 10 and 5 tugrik notes are in circulation.
Religion: 94 % Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism is principal religion. 6 % Muslim.
Population: 2.866.6 people. 1.5 inhabitants per 1 sq.km.
Independence: 1921final independence from China. 1990 democratic reform and shift from dependence on the former Soviet Union.
The National flag of Mongolia is red with a vertical blue stripe down the middle. Red, the color of fire, symbolizes prosperity and progress. Blue, the color of the sky, means eternity and peace.
National Emblem or Soyombo:
Soyombo is the symbol of the Mongols’ freedom and independence. Each element of this symbol has its own meaning. Three-tongued flame symbolizes the nation’s past, present and future prosperity. Underneath the flame are the sun and crescent. The flame together the sun and the crescent symbolize the prosperity and progress of the Mongolian nation.
The two triangles in the upper and lower parts of the ideogram tell about the people’s determination to uphold their freedom and independence.
The rectangle is the symbol of uprightness, honesty and nobleness. In the center of Soyombo are two fishes. They symbolize the unity of pairs of natural elements: fire and water; earth and sky, and man and woman. Fish also symbolize reason and wisdom. The two vertical lines at the sides of the emblem mean friendship and staunchness.
Administrative subdivisions: 21 Aimags /provinces/, 4 cities and 360 Soums /territorial administrative unit of Mongolia/